Robert Laumbach, Michael Gochfeld

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter describes the basic principles of toxicology and their application to occupational and environmental health. Topics covered include pathways that toxic substances may take from sources in the environment to molecular targets in the cells of the body where toxic effects occur. These pathways include routes of exposure, absorption into the body, distribution to organs and tissues, metabolism, storage, and excretion. The various types of toxicological endpoints are discussed, along with the concepts of dose-response relationships, threshold doses, and the basis of interindividual differences and interspecies differences in response to exposure to toxic substances. The diversity of cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity, including enzyme induction and inhibition, oxidative stress, mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and teratogenesis, are discussed and the chapter concludes with examples of practical applications in clinical evaluation and in toxicity testing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationOccupational and Environmental Health
PublisherOxford University Press
Number of pages30
ISBN (Print)9780190662677
StatePublished - Nov 23 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)


  • Absorption
  • Dose-response relationships
  • Excretion
  • Interindividual differences
  • Interspecies differences
  • Metabolism
  • Molecular mechanisms
  • Storage
  • Toxic substances
  • Toxicology


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