Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide with over 8 million fatalities accounted for in 2016. Solicitation of host immune defenses by vaccination is the treatment of choice to prevent these infections. It has long been thought that vaccine immunity was solely mediated by the adaptive immune system. However, over the past decade, numerous studies have shown that innate immune cells can also retain memory of these encounters. This process, called innate immune memory, is mediated by metabolic and epigenetic changes that make cells either hyperresponsive (trained immunity) or hyporesponsive (tolerance) to subsequent challenges. In this review, we discuss the concepts of trained immunity and tolerance in the context of host-pathogen interactions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- host-pathogen interaction
- innate memory
- trained immunity