Training physical education students to self-regulate during basketball free throw practice

Timothy J. Cleary, Barry J. Zimmerman, Tedd Keating

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


The additive effects of self-regulation training in forethought, performance, and self-reflection phase processes on acquiring a novel motoric skill (i.e., basketball free throws) and self-reflective beliefs were studied with 50 college students. The results showed a positive linear trend between the number of self-regulatory phases, in which the participants were trained, and their free throw shooting performance and shooting adaptation. The two- and three-phase training groups displayed significantly more accurate free throws and were able to self-correct their shooting form more frequently following missed shots than all other groups. Participants who received three-phase training displayed the most adaptive motivational profile, characterized by making strategic attributions and adaptive inferences and by using self/process criteria during self-evaluations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-262
Number of pages12
JournalResearch Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2006
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Nephrology


  • Attributions
  • Motivation
  • Self-evaluation
  • Self-monitoring

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