Trends in incidence and mortality rates of ventricular septal rupture during acute myocardial infarction

Abel E. Moreyra, Michael S. Huang, Alan C. Wilson, Yingzi Deng, Nora M. Cosgrove, John B. Kostis

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119 Scopus citations


Since the introduction of reperfusion in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), rates of ventricular septal rupture (VSR) and associated mortality have decreased, but it is not known if incidence and mortality have continued to decrease. We describe trends in incidence and mortality rates of patients with postinfarction VSR during the previous 2 decades and identify risk factors that predict the development and mortality of this rare but catastrophic complication. We analyzed occurrence and mortality rates in patients with first AMI with (n = 408) and without VSR (n = 148,473) who were hospitalized from 1990 to 2007 using the New Jersey Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) database. The annual rate of VSR in AMI was 0.25% to 0.31%. Compared to patients with AMI without VSR, patients with VSR were older, more likely to be women, had increased rate of chronic renal disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiogenic shock, and were less likely to be hypertensive or diabetic (all p values <0.0001). During the 18-year study period, we found no change in hospital and 1-year mortalities, which were 41% and 60% in 1990 to 1992 and 44% and 56% in 2005 to 2007, respectively. The survival benefit associated with VSR surgical repair was seen only in hospital (hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.95) but not at 30 days or 1 year. In conclusion, despite improvement in medical treatment and revascularization techniques, the rate of VSR complicating AMI has not changed during the previous 2 decades, and the mortality associated with VSR has remained high and relatively constant.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1095-1100
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Oct 15 2010

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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