Modulating light via coherent charge oscillations in solids is the subject of intense research topics in opto-plasmonics. Although a variety of methods are proposed to increase such modulation efficiency, one central challenge is to achieve a high modulation depth (defined by a ratio of extinction with/without light) under small photon-flux injection, which becomes a fundamental trade-off issue both in metals and semiconductors. Here, by fabricating simple micro-ribbon arrays of topological insulator Bi 2 Se 3, we report an unprecedentedly large modulation depth of 2,400% at 1.5THz with very low optical fluence of 45μJcm-'2. This was possible, first because the extinction spectrum is nearly zero due to the Fano-like plasmon-phonon-destructive interference, thereby contributing an extremely small denominator to the extinction ratio. Second, the numerator of the extinction ratio is markedly increased due to the photoinduced formation of massive two-dimensional electron gas below the topological surface states, which is another contributor to the ultra-high modulation depth.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)