Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is currently used to spatially locate heterogeneities within dense ceramics and measure the elastic properties of these materials. The use of acoustic spectroscopy in dense ceramics to measure heterogeneity type, size, and composition has had little investigation. Understanding the acoustic interaction within a ceramic material and the causes of energy loss within different frequency regimes can lead to a predictive method of using acoustic spectroscopy to understand microstructural parameters. This study focuses on the development of acoustic spectroscopy as a tool for micro structural characterization in dense aluminum oxide. As part of this research specific alumina sample sets were fabricated to control and vary different microstructural features such as additive content and grain size. Independently controlling certain aspects of the alumina microstructure lead to a better understanding of how the microstructure causes energy loss over an acoustic attenuation coefficient spectrum.