We show that the exact exchange-correlation potential of time-dependent density-functional theory displays dynamical step structures that have a spatially nonlocal and time nonlocal dependence on the density. Using one-dimensional two-electron model systems, we illustrate these steps for a range of nonequilibrium dynamical situations relevant for modeling of photochemical or physical processes: field-free evolution of a nonstationary state, resonant local excitation, resonant complete charge transfer, and evolution under an arbitrary field. A lack of these steps in the usual approximations yields inaccurate dynamics, for example, predicting faster dynamics and incomplete charge transfer.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Physics and Astronomy