The pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is better understood since the identification of the novel human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), which can be found in all forms of KS. Viral oncogenesis and cytokine-induced growth, as well as some states of immunocompromise, contribute to its development. Several virally encoded genes-eg, bcl-2, interleukin 6, cyclin D, G-protein-coupled receptor, and interferon regulatory factor-provide key functions on cellular proliferation and survival. Growth promotion of KS is further stimulated by various proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors such as tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, basic fibroblast growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor, resulting in a hyperplastic polyclonal lesion with predominant spindle cells derived from lymphoid endothelia. HHV8 has recently been discovered to escape HLA-class-restricted antigen presentation to cytotoxic T lymphocytes by increasing endocytosis of MHC class I chains from the cell surface, thus enabling latent infection and immune escape in primary and chronic infection. Multicentric Castleman's disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of the plasma cell type, which has been reported in both HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative patients, and which frequently contains HHV8 DNA. Pleural effusion lymphoma, or body-cavity-based lymphoma, belongs to the group of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas characterised by pleural, pericardial, or peritoneal lymphomatous effusions in the absence of a solid tumour mass. Pleural effusion lymphoma has an intermediate immunophenotype lacking B or T lymphocyte antigens and also belongs to the diseases associated with HHV8.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Infectious Diseases