Animal studies show efficacy of intravenous lipid emulsion in the treatment of severe cardiotoxicity associated with local anesthetics, clomipramine, and verapamil, possibly by trapping such lipophilic drugs in an expanded plasma lipid compartment ("lipid sink"). Recent case reports describe lipid infusion for the successful treatment of refractory cardiac arrest caused by parenteral administration of local anesthetics, but clinical evidence has been lacking for lipid's antidotal efficacy on toxicity caused by ingested medications. A 17-year-old girl developed seizure activity and cardiovascular collapse after intentional ingestion of up to 7.95 g of bupropion and 4 g of lamotrigine. Standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation for 70 minutes was unsuccessful in restoring sustained circulation. A 100-mL intravenous bolus of 20% lipid emulsion was then administered, and after 1 minute an effective sustained pulse was observed. The patient subsequently manifested significant acute lung injury but had rapid improvement in cardiovascular status and recovered, with near-normal neurologic function. Serum bupropion levels before and after lipid infusion paralleled triglyceride levels. This patient developed cardiovascular collapse because of intentional, oral overdose of bupropion and lamotrigine that was initially refractory to standard resuscitation measures. An infusion of lipid emulsion was followed rapidly by restoration of effective circulation. Toxicologic studies are consistent with the lipid sink theory of antidotal efficacy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Emergency Medicine