This systematic review examined the relationship between self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation (CSM) served as a theoretical framework for examining how, when (mediators), and for whom (moderators) SMBG improved glycemic control. Five databases were searched: Medline, PsychInfo, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature. Included studies had cross-sectional, longitudinal, or randomized controlled trial designs; were published between 2007 and 2011; and included patients with type 2 diabetes at least some of whom were not taking insulin; 1318 studies were screened, 119 were reviewed in detail, and 26 were included. Data were collected on the relationship between SMBG and glycemic control, study design, mediators, moderators, participant characteristics, the CSM, and limitations. Twenty-six studies met criteria for inclusion: 11 cross-sectional, 4 longitudinal, and 11 randomized controlled trials. The results of the cross-sectional studies were inconclusive. Results from the longitudinal studies and randomized control trials suggested that SMBG may improve glycemic control. The few studies investigating mediators or moderators reported mixed results. Few studies effectively measured the CSM. Data suggested that SMBG may help improve glycemic control. Future trials must be designed to test hypotheses and improve our understanding of when, how, and for whom SMBG can enhance glycemic control. Rigorously controlled repetitions of current 2-arm trials will yield little new knowledge of theoretical or practical value.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Health Professions (miscellaneous)