Validation of the portuguese simple measure of impact of lupus erythematosus in youngsters (SMILEY) in Brazil

L. N. Moorthy, C. Saad-Magalhães, J. Oliveira Sato, C. A. Len, M. Brandão Vasco, S. Appenzeller, R. Marini, Sk Feitosa De Oliveira, M. Rodrigues, F. Sztajnbok, R. Gasparello De Almeida, A. Almeida De Jesus, L. M. Campos, C. A. Silva, Mge Peterson, A. L. Hassett, E. Weiss, S. Verma, M. Q. Dahodwala, Tja Lehman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background and Objective: Simple Measure of the Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (SMILEY) is a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) assessment tool for pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which has been translated into Portuguese for Brazil. We are reporting preliminary data on cross-cultural validation and reliability of SMILEY in Portuguese (Brazil). Methods: In this multi-center cross-sectional study, Brazilian children and adolescents 5-18 years of age with SLE and parents participated. Children and parents completed child and parent reports of Portuguese SMILEY and Portuguese Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM) Generic and Rheumatology modules. Parents also completed the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ). Physicians completed the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), Physician's Global Assessment of disease activity (PGA) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus International Collaborating Clinics ACR Damage Index (SDI). Results: 99 subjects (84 girls) were enrolled; 93 children and 97 parents filled out the SMILEY scale. Subjects found SMILEY relevant and easy to understand and completed SMILEY in 5-15 minutes. Brazilian SMILEY was found to have good psychometric properties (validity and reliability), and the child-parent agreement was moderate. Conclusion: SMILEY may eventually be used routinely as a research/clinical tool in Brazil. It may be also adapted for other Portuguese-speaking nations offering critical information regarding the effect of SLE on HRQOL for children with SLE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)190-197
Number of pages8
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Rheumatology


  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • portuguese
  • quality of life


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