The mathematical and numerical modeling of twin-screw polymer extruders is examined with respect to accuracy of results and validity of the simulation. A numerical model is developed incorporating the translation region, which is similar to a single-screw extruder channel, and the intermeshing, or nip, region. The numerical modeling is carried out for steady and time-dependent operation, considering various polymeric materials like polyethylene and corn meal. A range of design parameters and operating conditions are considered. The results are evaluated in terms of the expected physical behavior of the system and compared with experimental results available in the literature to determine the accuracy of the predictions. In many cases, only qualitative comparisons are possible since the operating conditions and design parameters are not explicitly known. However, the basic trends are as expected and good quantitative comparisons with experimental data is used to validate the model. Validated numerical models can extend the domain of relevant inputs for process design and optimization.