Warm isostatic pressing (WIP'ing) of GS44 Si3N4 FDC parts for defect removal

Suxing Wu, Sriram Rangarajan, Cheng Dai, Ryan McCuiston, Noshir A. Langrana, Ahmad Safari, Stephen C. Danforth, Richard B. Clancy, Philip J. Whalen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Fused deposition of ceramics (FDC) is one of the developing solid freeform fabrication (SFF) techniques. The successful production of high performance ceramics by the FDC process requires that no defects exist in the green parts. However, build defects, such as missing roads, poorly bonded layers or sub-perimeter voids can be encountered in improperly built FDC parts. In this study, a method known as WIP'ing (warm isostatic pressing) was evaluated for its ability to eliminate existing defects in GS44 Si3N4 green FDC parts. Analogous to CIP'ing (cold isostatic pressing), the green FDC parts were rubber bagged and loaded into a pressure chamber filled with water soluble oil at different temperatures, ranging from 30 to 90°C, at pressures of up to 35 MPa. X-Ray radiography results indicated that at temperatures above 70°C, WIP'ing was effective in closing the gaps of the intentionally placed void defects in FDC parts. However, WIP'ing above 70°C was not effective in healing the defects completely. The fracture strengths of FDC parts with intentional added defects, WIP'ed above 70°C were substantially lower than control samples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)681-686
Number of pages6
JournalMaterials and Design
Issue number8
StatePublished - Dec 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


  • Defect removal
  • Fused deposition of ceramics
  • Rapid prototyping
  • Warm isostatic pressing


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