Willingness-to-relocate: Examining preferences for parking relocation of privately-owned automated vehicles

Wenjian Jia, T. Donna Chen, Wenwen Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Privately-owned automated vehicles (PAVs) can relocate themselves elsewhere after arriving at destinations, thereby inducing empty vehicle mile traveled (VMT) and more greenhouse gas emissions. This paper examines travelers’ preferences for PAV relocation, using stated preference surveys distributed in the Seattle and Kansas City regions in the U.S. Model results suggest that trip purpose, individual socio-economic and household characteristics, and local contexts influence PAV relocation decisions. Additionally, a willingness-to-relocate (WTR) metric is defined to represent how much time travelers would be willing to spend to relocate PAVs to save $1 in parking costs. The WTR estimates in both regions indicate the potential of induced VMT due to PAV parking relocation. Furthermore, travelers’ awareness of fuel/energy costs associated with PAV relocation does not necessarily relate to a lower WTR, depending on the region. To curb excessive empty VMT from PAV relocation, explicit disincentives, such as a VMT fee, may be needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103318
JournalTransportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
StatePublished - Jul 2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Transportation
  • General Environmental Science


  • Automated vehicles
  • Parking relocation
  • Stated preferences
  • Willingness to relocate


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