WORD: A large scale dataset, benchmark and clinical applicable study for abdominal organ segmentation from CT image

Xiangde Luo, Wenjun Liao, Jianghong Xiao, Jieneng Chen, Tao Song, Xiaofan Zhang, Kang Li, Dimitris N. Metaxas, Guotai Wang, Shaoting Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Whole abdominal organ segmentation is important in diagnosing abdomen lesions, radiotherapy, and follow-up. However, oncologists’ delineating all abdominal organs from 3D volumes is time-consuming and very expensive. Deep learning-based medical image segmentation has shown the potential to reduce manual delineation efforts, but it still requires a large-scale fine annotated dataset for training, and there is a lack of large-scale datasets covering the whole abdomen region with accurate and detailed annotations for the whole abdominal organ segmentation. In this work, we establish a new large-scale Whole abdominal ORgan Dataset (WORD) for algorithm research and clinical application development. This dataset contains 150 abdominal CT volumes (30495 slices). Each volume has 16 organs with fine pixel-level annotations and scribble-based sparse annotations, which may be the largest dataset with whole abdominal organ annotation. Several state-of-the-art segmentation methods are evaluated on this dataset. And we also invited three experienced oncologists to revise the model predictions to measure the gap between the deep learning method and oncologists. Afterwards, we investigate the inference-efficient learning on the WORD, as the high-resolution image requires large GPU memory and a long inference time in the test stage. We further evaluate the scribble-based annotation-efficient learning on this dataset, as the pixel-wise manual annotation is time-consuming and expensive. The work provided a new benchmark for the abdominal multi-organ segmentation task, and these experiments can serve as the baseline for future research and clinical application development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102642
JournalMedical Image Analysis
StatePublished - Nov 2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Health Informatics
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


  • Abdominal organ segmentation
  • Benchmark
  • Clinical applicable study
  • Dataset


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